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Criminal Law – Degrees of Murder

Criminal Law – Degrees of Murder

Chances are, if someone is suspected of killing someone else and there is enough evidence, that person is going to be charged with murder. But what exactly does that mean?

At common law, murder was defined as the unlawful killing of another human being with intent or malice aforethought. Malice aforethought can be a difficult concept to wrap your head around, but generally falls within one of several categories (i.e. intent to kill, intent to inflict grievous bodily harm, reckless indifference to an unjustifiably high risk to human life or “abandoned and malignant heart,” or intent to commit a dangerous felony or “felony murder”).

But it is important to note that modern law defines murder in several different forms, or degrees. Additionally, different states define these degrees in different ways.

First degree murder is most akin to common law murder. Generally, it is also the most serious degree of murder. Usually, first degree murder is defined as the deliberate and premeditated killing of another human being with malice. Deliberate essentially means that the murderer deliberately intended to kill the other person. Premeditated refers to the murderer actually thinking about the killing prior to its occurrence. Malice is to commit the act without just cause or legal excuse. Acting in self defense, or in defense of another person, is an example of just cause or legal excuse. For example, two friends are playing basketball and one friend dunks on the other. After the game, the “dunkee” goes home, grabs his gun, and leaves his home searching for the “dunker.” Eventually, the “dunkee” finds the “dunker” and shoots him. This will most likely be considered first degree murder.

Second-degree murder is killing another with malice. Therefore, second degree murder usually refers to committing the act without just cause or legal excuse. It does not require deliberation or premeditation. That is to say this means intentionally killing someone without planning in advance. Continuing the example above, if the “dunkee” in a fit of rage immediately after being dunked on, pulls a gun from his shorts and shoots the “dunker,” this may be considered second degree murder.

Felony murder, while mentioned above, adds a whole new twist. Felony murder, as the name implies, occurs during the course of the commission of a felony. Often times, even a death that is an accident, will be considered felony murder if it happens while a felony is being committed. For example, if someone is robbing a bank and a customer of the bank has a heart attack and dies, that will usually be considered felony murder. Felony murder usually carries an enhanced sentence.

Manslaughter, while often mistaken as a form of murder, is a killing that carries a lesser degree of culpability than murder.

So there you have it – degrees of murder in a nutshell.…

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Building the Persuasive Case Begins With Getting the Facts

Building the Persuasive Case Begins With Getting the Facts

How can a criminal defense client get involved in building the persuasive case? That’s the defense lawyer’s job, right? Remarkably, clients actively involved in their own case development are most often the happiest clients. Earlier this month, and in the first post in this series on building the persuasive case, we focused on attorney credibility in the courtroom. The next area to explore is fact gathering. Next time we’ll look at developing legal theories and brainstorming for ideas.

Factual material should be gathered from every possible source within the economic limits of the case. Clients are the major source of information. Beyond this, an independent investigation should be conducted by the criminal attorney. We are talking about interviewing key witnesses and sometimes using a private investigator hired-on to the defense team. The defense lawyer should always discuss the utility of hiring an investigator during the initial client interview to help the client prepare for possible incurred expenses.

The crime scene should be visited. ALWAYS! This includes the time of day of the alleged incident. Plan on taking photographs, preferably digital photographs which can be downloaded onto a computer and organized using an appropriate image viewing program. Physical measurements of the scene should be obtained depending upon the defense strategy. Sometimes preparing a scaled diagram of the area is important. Observe lighting conditions, traffic patterns, and movements of people in the area.

Develop a discovery plan. In other words, what information do you need from the prosecutor to develop the case? What photos or video do the police possess? What physical evidence was collected? (Amazingly, so few lawyers even inspect the physical evidence when preparing for trial). Often prosecutors will provide informal discovery if they believe the defense lawyer is working towards a resolution of the case in good faith, even if the prosecutors have a closed file policy.

Always get the police photos. ALWAYS! View the police video. ALWAYS! Criminal cases are often dismissed when prosecutors realize the video did not quite match what the police report says. Get copies of recorded audio and listen to it. AlWAYS!

What kind of relevant documents exist? Search warrant affidavits; probable cause statements; accident reports; and other public information. Medical records; hospital records; MHMR records; school records; and public records pertaining to the client, alleged victim, and witnesses. Obtain information and standards from governmental organizations via subpoena or open records requests. Locate police training manuals, standards documents, etc. For instance, field sobriety testing manuals are commonly used to develop an attack upon a police officer’s administration of DWI sobriety tests.

Once factual materials are gathered experts may be needed to evaluate it. Forensic experts, psychologists, fingerprint experts, or others pertinent to the case. Maybe a toxicology expert in a DWI case. Certainly, a computer forensic expert in a child pornography case. DNA experts when the State is using biological evidence. Ballistics, blood splatter, and list goes on. The possible expenses involved with hiring experts should also be discussed with the client at the initial interview.

Once the facts are collected the criminal defense lawyer can begin to decide upon applicable legal theories and brainstorming for ideas. Those topics will be next when we return to building the persuasive case.…

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Do I Need A Tax Attorney?

Do I Need A Tax Attorney?

Although tax season has become much easier with the advent of e-filing, many still view the process as stressful. Especially in the event of an audit, intimidation and dread are not uncommon responses to tax-related paperwork. In most cases, acquiring tax debt relief is not as difficult as it seems. The nuances of tax laws are not as bewildering to those with experience and the right know-how. This is just one of the many benefits of finding an attorney well-versed in tax issues.

Some fear that having a tax attorney could appear an underhanded way of trying to solve the problem, and that it would be viewed by the IRS in a negative light. This simply isn’t true – tax attorneys are there for a reason, and that is to help you better understand the situation and its potential outcomes. The knowledge, skills and support of someone familiar with the laws and options can be a valuable resource during times of financial uncertainty.

Other common causes for concern regard time, effort and money. Will this process take up my whole life for next days, weeks or more? When will it end? How much is this going to cost me in the end? A lawyer who specializes in tax complications has been through the entire procedure before, and can provide you with educated answers to your questions.

Put simply, a skilled tax attorney is capable of understanding your audit and the laws surrounding it. While you may have a good idea of what went wrong and how to fix it, having a lawyer to protect your rights and interests is a truly invaluable tool.…

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Are You Getting a Divorce?

It doesn’t make a difference if it was you who settled on the choice to get divorced or if it was your partner, when this point has arrived things will, in general, get entangled and when looking for legal assistance by far most is centered around the requirements of women and kids leaving aside the male way to deal with divorce.

Experiencing a divorce can be a significant headache for all parties included, and it is ideal to be as set up as conceivable before your case continues. According to, there are various significant moves men can make to ensure themselves in a divorce. Getting a lawyer and checking your accounts can be proactive strides to take to ensure yourself as opposed to letting your divorce case transpire. 

You should find support from loved ones, and open a channel of communication that can likewise incorporate your prospective ex-spouse. Divorce puts an immense strain on your relations yet on the off chance that you can speak agreeably about your circumstance it will have an enormous effect. 

Move your documents, records, and different papers elsewhere, similar to a friend’s home or your attorney’s office. Your spouse may go through your work area, folder case, car, phone records, bills, and PC searching for budgetary data and other proof to use against you. 

Research on the divorce process and what’s included. Almost certainly, except if you work inside family law you are new to divorce overall. Investigating the divorce process gives you what to expect, making the entire process that little simpler. 

Go to the bank and divide the joint bank accounts fifty-fifty and store your half in your name. You can likewise place them all in your name, however now and again this will drive the judge crazy with you. Notwithstanding, it is frequently simpler to give the cashback than to get it back. If you are the provider, don’t put your youngsters and their parents for the dogs without some cash to make do with. This will irritate the judge who will make you pay in any case. Make arrangements with the goal that bills will be secured. Tell your kids’ parents what you have done, however not before you have done it. You don’t need them to wipe out the account first. 

Close all joint credit or loan accounts and tell the banks, charge cards, and others by a confirmed, return receipt letter that you are not, at this point answerable for the costs of your spouse. 

You may request that the company reopen an account in your name. This is a good ideal opportunity to demand it. If they have just begun their spending binge, report the card as taken. On the off chance that they have charged their attorney expenses on the card, you can contest the accusations of the company.

On the off chance that a monetary request isn’t acquired after a divorce, at that point wedding budgetary ties despite everything apply and if one spouse riches increments for various reasons, at that point future claims are conceivable. Regardless of whether you trust you have no advantages for a split, it’s consistently worth acquiring a court request to legally isolate monetary ties. 

If your divorce or money related circumstance is complicated or you feel you’re not getting a reasonable part, guarantee you look for legal advice at

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What does it mean to be legally separated in Washington state?

There is an option for couples experiencing marital problems that don’t involve divorce. This process is known as the legal separation Washington state. Many couples prefer to legally separate instead of divorce so that they’re going to have time to examine if they will reconcile or because a divorce goes against their religious beliefs. People choose legal separation over divorce for a variety of other reasons including medical insurance benefits, military benefits, or immigration status.

A legal separation in Washington State allows a couple to formalize a separation while remaining legally married. It’s accomplished through a court order and is a legally binding decree. Legal separation isn’t a requirement before filing for divorce and lots of couples can reconcile during this point.

As the dissolution of the marriage process, the legal separation Washington state process begins with the filing of a petition. The difference between the 2 petitions is that one asks for the court to dissolve the marriage, while the opposite requests that the parties be declared legally separated. The legal separation process includes the same phases as the dissolution process: filing of initial pleadings, temporary orders (in some cases), discovery, (sometimes) mediation or arbitration, and eventually, if the parties cannot otherwise agree, a trial. Also just like the dissolution process, the legal separation process culminates with a decree and other associated orders.

One of the foremost common reasons couples prefer to pursue a legal separation with the court is that it allows them to create financial arrangements, like deciding who can pay the bills and who will retain certain property and possessions. When the court is involved in the separation, temporary arrangements are made for the following:

  • Child custody
  • Child support
  • Child visitation schedule
  • Division of assets and debts

Just as being married doesn’t require you to live under the same roof, being legally separated doesn’t require you to live under different roofs. However, many legally separated couples prefer to live aside from each other for a variety of reasons. Some could be ascertained whether divorce is the right next step, while others may find it easier to separate their finances while living apart.

Who is legally separated rather than divorced may not remarry. Because the parties are still legally married, they’re not eligible to marry another person.

Importantly, six months after a decree of legal separation is entered either party can ask the court to convert the legal separation into a decree of dissolution ending the marriage. If this happens, the court will grant the petition and convert the legal separation to a divorce.

Just because legal separation isn’t as drastic a step as divorce doesn’t mean that you simply don’t need a family law attorney to assist you through the process. During a legal separation, you continue to divide your assets and debts together with your partner and come up with plans regarding your children, retirement, and living arrangements. If you’ve been married for an extended time, have tons of property, or have a complicated split, an attorney could also be ready to protect your rights and assist you through the process.

Although some legal separation Washington state is cut and dry, others aren’t. additionally, a bit like a divorce, you’ll not know what you’re entitled to or what you ought to fight for without chatting with a lawyer. You’ll even wish to talk with a lawyer to debate whether legal separation or divorce is the more sensible choice for you and your family.…

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Lemari Rempah Ayah Saya Lebih Besar Daripada Lemari Rempah Ayah Anda!

Saya yakin istri saya lelah diberitahu betapa “beruntung” dia (bukan oleh saya!). Saya tahu siapa yang beruntung. Ketika saya berkeliaran di seluruh negeri di tahun 90-an mencoba membangun karir di bidang penjualan dan pemasaran, dia bertahan dan membesarkan tiga anak (yang, ngomong-ngomong, tidak keberatan diberi tahu bahwa mereka beruntung!) Praktis sendirian . Saya yang beruntung; dia baru saja memilih dengan baik! Meskipun demikian, dalam gaya stereotip, ketika kami bertemu teman dan kenalan dalam lingkungan sosial, jika percakapan seputar makanan – dan sering terjadi – istri saya mendengarnya, “Kamu sangat beruntung suamimu memasak!” (Kedengarannya seperti wanita simpanan bagiku!)
Saya seorang “foodie,” tapi izinkan saya untuk mencatat, SETIAP pasangan, pria atau wanita, yang pasangannya memasak tiga kali atau lebih dalam seminggu beruntung – dua kali lipat jika kualitas makanan secara konsisten tinggi (yang akan menjadi kasus di rumah kami). Ketertarikan saya pada makanan, terutama persiapan yang sama, kembali ke 30 tahun yang lalu ke masa casserole mie tuna saya sebagai mahasiswa yang tinggal sendiri. Casserole mie tuna milik ibu saya adalah makanan pokok di rumah saya selama tahun-tahun pembentukan saya, jadi ketika saya menyewa apartemen pertama saya sebagai mahasiswa tingkat dua, teman sekamar saya diperkenalkan dengan Clara’s Tuna Casserole. Saya memilihnya karena mudah. Sisanya, seperti kata mereka, adalah sejarah.
Setelah beberapa tahun berganti-ganti antara tuna casserole, hot dog, sup ayam Campbell, dan pizza Domino’s, tibalah waktunya untuk meningkatkan kualitas. Lagipula, manusia tidak bisa hidup sendirian di Domino! Setelah bekerja sebagai juru masak pesanan singkat di sekolah menengah atas di restoran kota asal yang populer, saya tahu sedikit tentang dapur. Saya meminta satu hal untuk Natal pada tahun 1980 – sebuah buku masak – dan seperti aslinya, Santa datang dengan Buku Masak Betty Crocker saya sendiri (sebenarnya, itu dari Ibu). Pada saat itu, saya bukan teman sekamar, jadi memasak untuk seseorang bukanlah yang paling efisien, tetapi meskipun demikian, saya terus maju, bertekad untuk memperluas cakrawala kuliner saya. Lihatlah, kualitas sisa makanan mulai meningkat!
Saya menikahi istri saya pada musim panas setelah lulus dari perguruan tinggi, dan saya memasak untuknya sejak itu. Buku masak kedua saya – New York Times Cookbook klasik – adalah hadiah dari ibu mertua saya. Saya sangat berguna dengan buku sketsa dan sekotak pastel saat kecil, tetapi saya memilih jalur karier non-artistik, jadi saya yakin penemuan memasak saya telah ditentukan sebelumnya. Itu memungkinkan saya untuk memuaskan kecenderungan kreatif saya sambil melayani fungsi yang benar-benar praktis – kita semua harus makan.
ATURAN RUMAH: Anda tidak harus menyelesaikannya, tetapi setidaknya Anda harus mencobanya.
Itu benar-benar satu-satunya aturan keras dan cepat di meja makan di rumah kami, dan itu memungkinkan kami untuk memperluas selera anak-anak kami ketika mereka masih kecil. Itu bisa menjadi pedang bermata dua, karena jika saya berani menyajikan hidangan daging tanpa saus yang menyertainya, saya pasti akan mendapatkan mata jahat dari putri saya. “Apa, Ayah, tidak ada saus? Bolehkah aku dimaafkan?” Pada akhirnya, anak-anak saya tumbuh dengan apresiasi yang luar biasa terhadap makanan yang enak dan upaya yang dilakukan di dalamnya, belum lagi pentingnya bahan-bahan segar.
Seperti yang Anda bayangkan, meja makan kami menampung lusinan teman anak-anak kami selama bertahun-tahun, dan Aturan Rumah juga berlaku untuk mereka. Satu-satunya pengecualian adalah alergi. Hasilnya, kami mengekspos ratusan anak pada hidangan yang belum pernah mereka alami, dan juga memperluas dunia kuliner mereka dalam prosesnya. Teman-teman anak-anak kami tahu – dan masih tahu – bahwa undangan makan malam di rumah Stauffer adalah kesempatan istimewa, dan kami diberkati karena beberapa dari mereka bergabung dengan kami lebih dari sekali.
Bagaimana dengan teman kita? Apakah Aturan Rumah juga berlaku untuk mereka? Pasti! Memiliki teman bergabung dengan kami untuk makan malam, atau mengadakan grup untuk pertandingan sepak bola atau liburan mewakili beberapa acara sosial kami yang paling berkesan dan menyenangkan. Ide kami tentang waktu yang baik adalah berkumpul dengan teman-teman, mencicipi makanan rumahan terbaik yang dilengkapi dengan anggur enak dan beberapa koktail. Bagi kami, tidak ada yang lebih baik dari itu.
Saya sangat percaya bahwa jika Anda bisa membaca, sampai batas tertentu, Anda bisa memasak. Oleh karena itu, dengan persediaan dan peralatan yang diperlukan, tidak ada alasan seseorang harus makan yang buruk, atau bahkan makanan yang biasa-biasa saja, jika Anda memiliki akses ke buku masak atau internet. Sumber daya terbesar untuk resep kelas dunia telah menjadi, tanpa pertanyaan, internet. Situs web seperti, dan – untuk beberapa nama – telah menjadi sumber utama saya untuk resep baru. Hingga taraf tertentu, web hampir menghilangkan kebutuhan konsumen rata-rata untuk membeli buku masak yang mahal. Sebagian besar situs menyertakan peringkat pengguna, jadi aturan praktisnya adalah tetap berpegang pada resep yang menerima peringkat maksimum. Banyak situs juga menyertakan peringkat tingkat kesulitan dan hampir semuanya menyertakan perkiraan waktu persiapan, sehingga pemula atau pemula pun dapat menentukan apakah akan menangani suatu resep. Peringkat tertinggi, misalnya, adalah empat percabangan.Saya tidak pernah mengunduh resep yang rata-rata peringkat kolektifnya kurang dari 3 1/2 garpu, dan …

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Makanan Penutup Mediterania Yang Luar Biasa Yang Jarang Sampai Di seberang Atlantik!

Beberapa makanan penutup paling populer adalah:

Brownies dan Kue:

Brownies ini juga dikenal sebagai kue brownies dan memiliki kandungan gula yang tinggi. Oleh karena itu, mereka mungkin bukan yang terbaik bagi mereka yang memiliki riwayat diabetes atau masalah jantung, tetapi tetap enak.

Kue dan Kue Almond:

Pasties Maroko terutama disiapkan dengan berbagai macam kenari dan almond dan merupakan beberapa pasties paling populer di toko roti Mediterania. Ini dikatakan menghasilkan keinginan yang tulus pada orang-orang yang mencintai makanan dan dimakan di seluruh dunia.

Krim gosong yang creamy dan lezat:

Krim gosong yang creamy dan lezat mungkin adalah makanan penutup paling terkenal dari wilayah Mediterania yang menghubungkan wilayah Mediterania barat dan timur dan memiliki daya tarik di seluruh dunia. Ini disiapkan dengan susu, kuning telur, kayu manis, lemon, tepung jagung dan gula. Untuk acara-acara khusus, resin dan almond, kacang mete dll juga ditambahkan. Dalam beberapa kasus, beberapa buah seperti apel atau nanas potong dadu juga ditambahkan ke makanan penutup ini. Dengan begitu banyak variasi, hidangan penutup ini memang menjadi salah satu olahan unggulan Mediterania.

Pir Segar dengan Anggur:

Ini adalah makanan penutup sederhana seperti namanya. Makanan penutup disiapkan dengan pir (segar), gula, kayu manis dan anggur merah. Ini utama dikonsumsi sebagai tambahan makanan penutup dan merupakan item menu favorit di banyak restoran Mediterania, terutama di gerai Amerika-Mediterania.
Salah satu ciri utama dari makanan penutup ini adalah sirupnya yang kental, yang merupakan campuran dari pir biasa yang direbus dengan anggur merah, dan sangat lezat.

Pancake Custard:

Makanan penutup ini merupakan makanan penutup yang sangat sesekali bagi komunitas Muslim di seluruh dunia, terutama di wilayah Mediterania. Bahan utamanya adalah tepung, susu, air, gula, bubuk custard, ragi, air rasa mawar, roti tawar tanpa kerak dan sari.

Maqloobeh yang misterius:

Maqloobeh adalah hidangan tradisional Mediterania yang komponen utamanya adalah terong dan domba dengan jumlah rempah yang bervariasi seperti merica dan kapulaga. Hidangan pedas ini paling enak dinikmati dengan salad hijau dan yogurt dan membutuhkan waktu lebih dari setengah jam untuk memasaknya. Rasanya naik ke tingkat yang benar-benar baru ketika ditambahkan dengan dua atau tiga potong bawang bombay yang baru dipotong. Nasi juga merupakan bahan penting dalam beberapa variasi hidangan ini.

Cheesecake yang menawan:

Cheesecake adalah salah satu hidangan Mediterania terbaik. Ini berisi keju krim kemasan, krim asam, susu kental manis. Rasa vanila atau coklat, mentega leleh, kulit jeruk, dan kelapa bakar dan dihargai sebagai lauk serta makanan penutup. Kue keju ini juga mendapatkan popularitas yang luas di dunia barat, terutama di AS.
Kue keju juga bisa ditemani pistachio atau sirup rasa. Untuk kue keju non-vegetarian, kuning telur juga bisa digunakan.

Hidangan ini adalah beberapa item makanan penutup paling populer tidak hanya di wilayah Mediterania, tetapi juga di seluruh dunia.Kuliner enak Kota Malang